"Only in psychiatry is the existence of physical disease determined
by APA presidential proclamations, by committee decisions, and even, by
a vote of the members of APA, not to mention the courts". - Peter Breggin,
"Some critics wonder if the multiplication of mental disorders has gone
too far, with the realm of abnormal encroaching on areas that were once
the province of individual choice, habit, eccentricity or lifestyle." -
Erica Goode, "Sick, or Just Quirky?"
|This section is included because it is referenced in other of our pages.
The text below is taken directly from the Fourth Edition of the DSM-IV,
copyright 1994, printed in 1997. Realize that psychiatry seems to make
sense within it's own limited framework of nomenclature and definitions,
but then again so do all mythologies, and the fault with psychiatry is
not logical inconsistencies within the field, but severely
flawed basic assumptions about man, his mind, his behavior, life, the
environment and the relationships between these things. Psychiatric methods
have been and continue to be harmful to Man and society. They cannot even
clearly define basic concepts of their field such as "mental disorder"
DSM-IV: DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL
MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS
Definition of Mental Disorder
Although this volume is titled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders, the term mental disorder unfortunately implies a distinction
between "mental" disorders and "physical" disorders that is a reductionistic
anachronism of mind/body dualism. A compelling literature documents that
there is much "physical" in "mental" disorders and much "mental" in "physical"
disorders. The problem raised by the term "mental" disorders has been much
clearer than its solution, and, unfortunately, the term persists in the
title of DSM-IV because we have not found an appropriate substitute.
|A basic and very large error in psychiatry's fundamental approach to
this subject is obvious in the above line, "the term mental disorder
unfortunately implies a distinction between "mental" disorders and "physical"
disorders that is a reductionistic anachronism of mind/body dualism."
The attitude contained in psychiatry is that "we have advanced past the
old and over simplistic notion of man having a mind and a body, and that
these two things are different." Well yes, actually and factually the MIND
and the BODY are TWO DIFFERENT THINGS, with observably different functions
and following quite different laws. They do effect each other, and
there are observable interrelations between the mind, body, and the environment,
but they ARE fundamentally unique and different phenomena. Psychiatry would
like us to believe "mental" disorders are all "physical" because this fits
in nicely with their (ridiculous) theories of genetic and chemical-biophysiological
causes for all "mental illness". This ideological slant has led to a very
incomplete picture of Man and society.
Modern psychiatry ignores the entire realm of mind except as a category
used in diagnosing "mental illness", doesn't directly address the mind
in any attempt to cure or empower a mind, and instead observes and attempts
to manipulate behavior and symptoms exclusively.
Yet, while ignoring the mind and refusing to address it directly, the
modern subjects of psychiatry and psychology pretend to deal with
"mental health", "mental hygiene", "mental illness" and "mental disorders".
What can these terms possibly mean when the subject itself has abandoned
the mind? There are no clear definitions of these terms anywhere in the
related psychiatric literatures, because the truth is that these terms
are surrounded by vagueness and based upon very faulty notions. Read on,
they admit this themselves.
Moreover, although this manual provides a classification of mental disorders,
it must be admitted that no definition adequately
specifies precise boundaries for the concept of "mental disorder." (emphasis
mine) The concept of mental disorder, like many other concepts in medicine
and science, lacks a consistent operational definition that covers all
situations. All medical conditions are defined on various levels of abstraction
- for example, structural pathology (e.g., ulcerative colitis), symptom
presentation (e.g., migraine), deviance from a physiological norm (e.g.,
hypertension), and etiology (e.g., pneumococcal pneumonia). Mental disorders
have also been defined by a variety of concepts (e.g., distress, dyscontrol,
disadvantage, disability, inflexibility, irrationality, syndromal pattern,
etiology, and statistical deviation). Each is a useful indicator for a
mental disorder, but none is equivalent to the concept, and different situations
call for different definitions.
Despite these caveats, the definition of mental disorder that was included
in DSM-III and DSM-III-R is presented here because it is
as useful as any other available definition and has helped to guide decisions
regarding which conditions on the boundary between normality and pathology
should be included in DSM-IV. In DSM-IV, each of the mental
disorders is conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioral
or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that
is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability
(i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with
a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or
an important loss of freedom. In addition, this syndrome or pattern
must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to
a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one. Whatever its
original cause, it must currently be considered a
manifestation of a behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction
in the individual. Neither deviant behavior (e.g., political, religious,
or sexual) nor conflicts that are primarily between the individual and
society are mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict is a symptom
of a dysfunction in the individual, as described above.
A common misconception is that a classification of mental disorders
classifies people, when actually what are being classified are disorders
that people have. For this reason, the text of DSM-IV (as did the
text of DSM-III-R) avoids the use of such expressions as "a schizophrenic"
or "an alcoholic" and instead uses the more accurate, but admittedly more
cumbersome, "an individual with Schizophrenia" or "an individual with Alcohol
Dependence." (more examples of psychiatrists playing with words, definitions,
|A key point of the psychiatric view is that a legitimate "mental illness"
requires underlying "behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction
in the individual". According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary:
dysfunction - an abnormality or impairment of function.
So, there must be an abnormality or impairment of behavior, biology
or psychology which manifests from the "mental illness" (which is never
observed, and completely deduced... Mmmm?). Strangely, the entire field
has never, not once, defined what "normal" or "ideal" functioning would
mean in these areas! What would be an "ideal condition" for the psychological
function known as attention? Memory? Imagination? Or intention? How might
we strive to achieve these states? The raw truth is that the field has
NEVER examined these things, much less with an interest in ascertaining
how these operate, and how these things could be improved and strengthened
- an obvious desirable goal for any group purporting to deal with "the
mind". The subject of cars deals with cars and how to fix them. The subject
of aviation deals with flying and how to make workable aircraft. Why doesn't
psychology deal with minds and how to improve them? (answer below -
Psychiatry, as with many other modern fields, attempts to attack
and destroy the negative and unwanted conditions, assuming that doing
so somewhere leaves a positive and desirable condition. This isn't so.
Destroying the unwanted does not and is not the same thing as creating
Psychiatry uses mental concepts (ideas concerned with a "mind") largely
as an excuse to label people with "mental illnesses". Examples: he has
moderate attention dysfunction (i.e. his mind wanders); she has mild memory
impairment (she has trouble recalling some things); he has fixated attention
on sexual imaginings (i.e. fantasies). These things are used only
to justify a diagnosis of illness. The area of the mind, as a thing in
itself, has NEVER been studied or addressed, much less understood by modern
psychiatry or psychology. This qualifies as real insanity - that
a subject dealing with things "mental" has absolutely no understanding
of the mind. This should seem unusual to anyone making a serious effort
to understand all this.
Also, since what is "normal" and "ideal" is largely a matter of individual
preference, interest, bias, or social agreements and standards, this places
the entire subject in the precarious position of actually being quite arbitrary
(and NOT a strict "science" at all).
"Normal" is the common denominator of average acceptable behavior. There
is nothing desirable about it. Psychiatry has developed an entire "science"
dependent upon labeling people "abnormal" or "impaired" because people
deviate from their extremely biased concepts of what's "acceptable" and
"normal". What are termed "mental disorders" and "illnesses" often envelope
what more accurately fall under the umbrella of "individual differences",
"personal uniqueness", "eccentricity" and "individuality". Unusual sometimes?
Yes. Strange? Maybe. But a "mental illness"? No! For conditions which do
have obviously harmful aspects to the person, the true cause lies in the
"mind" which psychiatry pays no attention to as a thing to be addressed
and corrected in itself. They say there is no value in doing this, but
this is ONLY because they have failed completely at doing it (or never
tried in the first place). Why listen to a failure?
Psychiatry would have us accept and believe we "have" depression or
anxiety disorder like we "have" a wart, a pimple or a stomach ache. While
depression, as one example of many, may have certain characteristics and
even similar repeated behaviors, the actual state of depression is factually
characterized by statements such as:
1) I "feel" despondent
2) My "thoughts" are always negative and I can't control them
3) I "want" to kill myself
4) Life has no value or meaning for me
Each of these has to do with the realm of emotion and thought, and almost
exclusively. But depression, and hundreds of other supposed "mental disorders"
are never dealt with addressing the realm of emotions or the mind. An explanation
of behaviorism gives a good idea how modern
"science" views Man. The mind is forsaken, and behavior is all.
Within the collegiate halls of modern psychiatry honest observation
has given way instead to intellectual prostitution.
How so? The modern drug companies needed a "reason" to justify selling
huge quantities of drugs to the public. Don't make it more complex than
that. It is this simple. The theories, constructs, models and practices
of modern psychiatry exist ONLY because the entire subject was energetically
funded by the same people who were investing heavily in the drug companies.
Are you a whore even if you don't know you're a whore? I think so. The
field of psychiatry has sold out the truth about Man and his mind for money,
prestige and power. The entire field prostitutes itself by promoting false
ideas, contriving studies and results, and burdening modern society with
various destructive practices. The lies are that it is done to "help",
following "sincere and honest research", and representing the "highest
modern degree of scientific results and understanding". Can a person be
called a liar if they don't know they are lying? I guess not. People who
say things which are not true, but think what they are saying is true,
are either deluded or stupid. Psychiatry as a field displays
Ironically, the same psychological theories which led to modern psychiatry
also established the modern educational system
(which is a horrible failure). Is it any wonder psychiatry now exists and
could only be able to exist within a society of people which has
an overall reduced educational level, impaired observational abilities,
and subverted intelligence - a situation which exists largely because of
the defects and influence of the modern subject known as "educational psychology"
- psychiatry's ideological cousin (based upon German
There is a term which used to be used among "heavy metal" enthusiasts.
It was "poser". It means "one who poses, who pretends to be something he
really isn't; one who acts and plays a part; dressing up in an attempt
to be accepted by others despite the fact that they aren't truly part of
the group; pretense; deception." The members of the psychiatric field have
"General Poser Disorder" (my contribution to the DSM...). They pretend
to be intelligent, sincere, desiring to help, and that their subject represents
a valid way to understand and deal with Man and his mind. They and the
subject are none of these things.
The real purpose of psychiatry is to 1) justify reasons for the public
to purchase larger and larger quantities of drugs (and thereby support
the drug companies), 2) numb the intellectual, emotional and observational
abilities of the general population, and 3) social control (masquerading
as "education" and "social services").
While you may not agree with the purpose of psychiatry as described
above, an honest examination of the products
of psychiatric methods and it's involvement in society can only lead
to the conclusion that the above three things are happening whether they
were planned and intended or not. It matters little if some mega-corporate-drug-company
conspiracy is behind it all, or whether it's all largely unplanned and
due to the general dullness and observational weakness of the members of
the psychiatric field (and society). Personally, after doing much research,
it seems to me that there is more planning, deception, and "conspiracy"
to this entire expansion of psychiatry than not. The public has been sold
a bad bill of goods, and led astray intentionally. But then again, I am
probably suffering from "Primary Conspiratorial Perception Syndrome" (a
mental disorder where one sees hidden plans, secret alliances, deception
and conspiracies behind everything when these don't actually exist). The
cure: drug me or cut out pieces of my brain to make the "illness" go away.
Then I will "fit in" nicely with the psychiatrists and social planners
notion of a "nice", "scientific", and "humane" society.
Read first hand for yourself and discover the true nature of psychiatry
as a very complicated modern mythology
masquerading as "true science". Where else would one find "coffee drinking"
(292.9 Caffeine-Related Disorder) turned into a mental illness! Smoking
is now classified as a mental illness also! You'll find it under category
305.10 Nicotine Dependence, and 292.0 Nicotine Withdrawal. Yes, smoking
does have an addictive aspect. No, drug addiction is not a mental illness!
It's simply drug addiction - the reaction physically and mentally to drug
taking. "Withdrawal" is a physiological reaction to stopping the taking
of a drug. It is not a mental illness either!
Of course, more mental illnesses in the catalog (DSM-IV) justifies
more psychiatrists, increasing government involvement, funding, drugging
of the public, electric shock, brain surgery and involuntary commitment.
It truly is a self perpetuating leviathan. More "disorders" gives us more
psychiatrists and increased funding of psychiatry, which then gives us
more "disorders", and round and round it goes. Let's end the merry-go-round.
published by the American Psychiatric Association
Say You're Crazy: How the World's Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who's
Normal by Paula J. Caplan, Ph.D.
Us Crazy: DSM: The Psychiatric Bible and the Creation of Mental Disorders
by Herb Kutchins, Stuart A. Kirk
Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct
by Thomas S. Szasz, M.D., Professor
Liberty, and Psychiatry : An Inquiry into the Social Uses of Mental Health
Practices by Thomas S. Szasz, M.D., Professor
Casebook: A Learning Companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders by Robert L. Spitzer, Miriam Gibbon, Andrew
E. Skodol, Michael B. First
Made Easy: The Clinician's Guide to Diagnosis by James Morrison
Criteria from DSM-IV (4th Ed) by John S. McIntyre
Back to Main DSM-IV Page
Back to Main SNTP Page
Truth in all subjects...
|©Gene Zimmer 1999 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED